Coffee is a brewed drink, which is loved all over the world and in time memorial for its flavorful aroma, which is produced from drying and roasting green coffee beans.
Roasting coffee brings out the aroma and unique flavor of coffee which is locked inside the green coffee beans, as the heating process allows the transformation of the chemical and physical properties of the green coffee beans to produce coffee. Non-roasted coffee beans contain levels of amino acids, protein, sugars and caffeine, a stimulant which is linked with the central nervous system, but when roasted, a Maillard reaction takes place, which is a chemical reaction between amino acids and sugars take place, and, thereby, resulting into a browned, roasted beans with a distinctive flavor.
Roasting coffee is a mastery of having the ability to know when the beans are roasted to give that aroma and flavor and not burnt. Coffee roasters know when is the right roasting time to achieve the kind of coffee that can come out and, basically, there are four categories – light, medium, medium-dark, and dark. All categories give that aromatic smell but the flavor of each differs.
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During roasting the coffee beans exert a sound and that is used as an indicator by coffee roasters to produce the levels of roasted coffee based, too, on specific temperatures, such that at 196 degrees Centigrade the first crack sound is produced, marking the beginning of a light roast coffee, and at 224 degrees Centigrade, the second crack is sounded.
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The characteristics of light roast coffee are light brown color, mild taste, and no visible oil present on the coffee, a result of not too long of roasting so that the inherent oils in the beans have not surfaced out. Light roast coffee are marketed into familiar names, such as Light City, Half City, and Cinnamon Coffee.
The characteristics of medium roast coffee are medium brown, has a stronger flavor than light roast coffee and, still, non-oily. Their special names come as City Coffee, American Coffee, and Breakfast Coffee.
The characteristics of medium dark roast coffee are rich, dark color, slightly oily, and having a bittersweet aftertaste. Medium dark roast coffee is also referred to as Full City coffee.
These are the distinct characteristics of dark roast coffee – shiny due to the oil that comes out during roasting, has a bitter taste, less acidity and slightly dark to charred color. These are the popular names of dark roast coffee beans – High, Continental, New Orleans, European, Espresso, Viennese, Italian, and French.